The Australian Senate has proposed the Patent Amendment (Human Genes and Biological Materials) Bill 2010 that aims to ban 'gene patents'.
From the BIO Submission to Australian Senate Legal Committee on Patent Amendment:
This amendment would exclude from patent protection "any" biological material, whether a human gene or otherwise, that is substantially identical to a naturally-occuring biological material. Specifically, the amendment states that the following materials would be catergorically declared unpatentable:
"biological materials including their components and derivatives, whether isolated or purified or not and however made, which are identical or substantially identical to such materials as they exist in nature."
"Biological materials" broadly "include," but apparently not limited to, such fundamental biotechnology building blocks as "DNA, RNA, proteins, cells and fluids."
As almost any biological material can be said to be "substantially identical" to some other natural biological material, this change would have the effect of banning large swaths of previously patentable innovative biological discoveries – thus, removing the protection needed to incentivize investment in biotechnology-related innovation in drugs and biological therapies, preventative treatments such as vaccines, animal healthcare products, renewable energy production and other "green" technologies, environmental mitigation and remediation, biodiversity, farming, food, nutrition, household cleaners, and industrial fermentation for food and fuel production.
BIO and its members believe that excluding biological inventions from patent protection is inconsistent with the demonstrated evidence of social benefit from isolating and purifying active compounds from previously ineffective mixtures occurring in nature. For example, the invention of isolated polymerase from certain thermophilic bacteria has provided valuable methods for amplifying DNA that enables forensic DNA analysis to establish guilt or innocence of crimes, the development of life-saving medical diagnostics, and molecular breeding for improved plants. If the amendment had been law, it would have prevented the patenting – and thus development – of significant advances in human health, like purified insulin, adrenaline, and antibiotics; vitamin D and B-12 compositions; human growth hormone; erythropoietin, and numerous vaccines and anti-cancer treatments on the market today.
Accordingly, BIO believes that this amendment, if adopted, would fail to affect its intended purpose of advancing medical and scientific research and the diagnosis and cure of human illness and disease. Indeed, it would slow such progress immeasurably. The public demands continuing the patent incentive for such biologic innovation.