Despite advances in many drug research paradigms - DNA sequencing, high throughput screening and CRISPR - success rates in drug development have remained largely unchanged. An estimated $2.6B and 12 years are spent bringing a drug to market, due largely to the industry’s reliance on ineffective animal models. The gap between the benchtop and bedside is wide, but Organ-on-a-Chip technology and microphysiological systems (MPS) show promise to bridge the divide. Expectations range from replacing animal testing and clinical trials in a dish to personalized medicine, but what can we realistically expect in the next 3-5 years? This panel will summarize the potential for novel alternatives to animal testing, as well as define limitations and the need to set expectations.