As noted in the BRAIN 2025 report, the burden of human brain disorders is significant. Over five million Americans currently suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, more than 25 million suffer from daily chronic pain and more than two million have Opioid Use Disorder. Federal support can help seed new innovations to tackle some of the most significant challenges. Several government initiatives have been launched in recent years focused on significant health challenges in neuroscience, including the BRAIN Initiative to understand the nervous system, Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias and the HEAL initiative to address the opioid crisis. While the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other federal agencies are supporting academic groups, the programs also have significant industry involvement. This panel will illustrate how specific strategic initiatives at the NIH have involved the entire biomedical ecosystem to solve important health challenges facing the nation.