Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses and energy hubs of the cell. Mostly relegated to biology textbooks, greater understanding of the role dysfunctional mitochondria play in numerous diseases – and their potential as a therapeutic target – is now emerging. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the cardiac, ophthalmic and neurological symptoms of rare diseases such as Barth syndrome, Friedreich’s ataxia, Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, and ALS. It is also implicated in age-related diseases, such as dry age-related macular degeneration. Innovative medical developments are on the horizon to help meet the unmet medical needs of patients and address the costly burden of mitochondrial disease management. Attendees will walk away from this discussion with a better understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction in both rare genetic diseases and common diseases of aging, and mitochondrial medicine’s unique development overall.