Bioartificial organs have become viable therapies for life threatening diseases thanks to new discoveries in cell engineering, nanotechnology, and disease pathways. Kidney disease, a public health crisis impacting 37 million Americans, is a field ripe to benefit from new technology. More than 700,000 Americans live with kidney failure, a condition requiring some form of renal replacement therapy. Today, their treatment options are dialysis or transplant. The former treatment has a 58% three-year mortality rate, while the latter option is available to few patients because of the increasing number of Americans on organ waitlists. An artificial kidney presents an innovative alternative. Artificial kidney development is in its infancy, and the artificial heart and artificial pancreas provide helpful roadmaps. This session will explore the development of the artificial heart and artificial pancreas and elucidate lessons today’s innovators can apply to the artificial kidney.