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The Value of Bioscience Innovation in Growing Jobs and Improving Quality of Life 2016

According to a report examining the economic value of bioscience innovation, U.S. bioscience firms employ 1.66 million people, a figure that includes nearly 147,000 high-paying jobs created since 2001. The average annual wage for a U.S. bioscience worker reached $94,543 in 2014. These earnings are $43,000 greater, on average, than the overall U.S. private sector wage of $51,148.

The report further shows that since 2012, the bioscience industry has grown by 2.2 percent with four of its five major subsectors contributing to this overall job gain.  Two of these subsectors—research, testing, and medical labs and drugs and pharmaceuticals—have led growth during the 2-year period with both increasing employment by more than 3 percent.

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Alabama

Bioscience industry employment in Alabama totaled nearly 14,000 in 2014 across 808 state business establishments. The state has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and chemicals subsector with 62 percent more jobs in the subsector relative to its private sector compared with the national average (location quotient of 1.62). Alabama has a strong focus in bioscience-related academic R&D expenditures relative to other fields with 70 percent of R&D in the life sciences compared with 61 percent, on average, for the U.S. NIH funding to Alabama institutions has increased since 2012 and totaled $280 million in 2015. Since 2012, state bioscience companies have received $101 million in venture capital funding with investments focused in human biotechnology and health information technology.
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Alaska

Alaska’s bioscience industry employed more than 800 across 114 individual business establishments in 2014. Most of these state jobs are in the research, testing, and medical labs and bioscience-related distribution subsectors of the industry. While the distribution subsector is modest in size in Alaska, it has grown by nearly 4 percent since 2012. NIH funding to Alaskan institutions has been increasing in recent years and reached $13.5 million in FY 2015. Nearly all of the state’s 64 bioscience-related patents since 2012 have been in medical and surgical devices.
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Arizona

Arizona’s bioscience industry has grown in recent years and by 2014 state bioscience firms employed just over 24,000 in nearly 1,300 business establishments. Four of the state’s five bioscience subsectors have contributed to its 2 percent overall employment gain since 2012, led by double-digit job growth in medical devices (up 11 percent). State academic institutions accounted for nearly $400 million in bioscience-related R&D expenditures in 2014 and NIH funding to these and other non-academic institutions totaled $150.6 million in 2015. Arizona inventors have had 1,751 patents issued in bioscience-related classes since 2012, primarily in medical and surgical devices but also in drugs and pharmaceuticals, microbiology and genetics, and in biochemistry. The state has seen a strong increase in venture capital invested in bioscience-related companies in recent years.
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Arkansas

Arkansas’ bioscience industry employed 6,617 in 2014 in 628 business establishments across the state. Arkansas has a strong employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and chemicals subsector with a 14 percent greater concentration compared to the national average (location quotient of 1.14). The industry has increased employment in Arkansas by 3.3 percent since 2012 with four of the five major industry subsectors contributing to this overall job growth. Arkansas has a strong focus in bioscience-related academic R&D expenditures relative to other fields with 83 percent of R&D in the life sciences compared with 61 percent, on average, for the U.S. Arkansas inventors have been issued 289 bioscience-related patents since 2012 across several areas including agricultural biosciences, medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and microbiology and genetics.
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California

California has the nation’s largest bioscience industry employment base, with more than 242,000 jobs which account for nearly 15 percent of the U.S. total. The state has a specialized concentration in the biosciences with a 26 percent greater concentration of industry jobs relative to the national average. The industry strengths in California are diverse, with a specialization in three of the five major subsectors including: medical devices and equipment; research, testing, and medical labs; and drugs and pharmaceuticals. State industry employment has grown by 2.8 percent since 2012, outpacing national job growth and includes gains in four of the five major subsectors. California is a national leader in several other performance metrics including bioscience venture capital investments at more than $19 billion since 2012; NIH funding awarded to state institutions at $3.5 billion; and academic bioscience R&D expenditures at $5.1 billion. California’s large and leading bioscience research infrastructure has yielded nearly 30,000 patents since 2012.
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Colorado

Colorado’s bioscience industry is large and growing with nearly 30,000 employed in 2014 following 4.4 percent job growth since 2012. Industry growth in the state has been led by gains in bioscience-related distribution and in research, testing, and medical labs. Colorado has a highly specialized employment concentration in medical device and equipment manufacturing, its location quotient is 1.60 or 60 percent more concentrated relative to the national average. Colorado bioscience companies have received $1.0 billion in venture capital investments since 2012 with three segments receiving more than $200 million each—human biotechnology, biofuels, and health information technology. Patents in bioscience-related technology areas have been increasing in Colorado. State inventors have been issued 2,931 patents in bioscience-related technologies since 2012 with medical and surgical devices as the leading focus area.
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Connecticut

Connecticut has a sizable and highly concentrated bioscience industry with two specialized industry subsectors—medical devices and equipment and drugs and pharmaceuticals. While the state’s bioscience industry has shed jobs overall since 2012, its research, testing, and medical labs subsector has seen strong job growth during the 2-year period, increasing by 23 percent. With $802 million in bioscience academic R&D expenditures, Connecticut’s universities are advancing new discovery and technologies with a predominant focus in these life science fields—78 percent of all academic R&D in the state compared with a 61 percent national average. The state’s bioscience research complex is highly concentrated with per capita academic R&D and NIH funding that stands among the top tier across all states.
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Delaware

Delaware has a highly specialized concentration in bioscience employment that reflects diverse strengths. The industry is 44 percent more concentrated in the state relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.44). Among the major bioscience industry subsectors, Delaware is considered to have a specialized employment concentration in three of the five, including: research, testing, and medical labs; medical devices and equipment; and bioscience-related distribution. Average annual wages among Delaware’s bioscience workers reached more than $120,000 in 2014, among the highest in the nation. The focus of the state’s 999 bioscience-related patents since 2012 has primarily been in microbiology and genetics and in biochemistry.
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District of Columbia

Bioscience industry employment in Washington, D.C. totaled just over 2,000 jobs that spanned 164 business establishments in 2014. Nearly all of these jobs are in the research, testing, and medical labs subsector which has increased employment since 2012. The District has little presence in the manufacturing oriented subsectors of the industry. Washington, D.C. stands out in its high concentration of bioscience and biomedical R&D. Its universities combined to spend more than $322 million in bioscience-related research in 2014 placing it among the top tier of states in its concentration of R&D per capita. Likewise, its research institutions received $193 million in funding from NIH in 2015, again among the top tier of states in its per capita concentration of this key biomedical funding stream.
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Florida

Florida is home to a large and diverse bioscience industry with nearly 83,000 jobs that span 5,895 business establishments. The state has a specialized employment concentration in the bioscience-related distribution subsector and is highly concentrated in agricultural feedstock and chemicals. Florida’s bioscience industry has grown its employment base by 4.9 percent since 2012 with four of the five major subsectors contributing to job growth including double-digit employment gains in both drugs and pharmaceuticals and in medical devices. Florida’s research universities conducted more than $1.2 billion in bioscience-related R&D in 2014. The state also stands out in its level of bioscience patenting with 4,904 patents issued to Florida inventors since 2012, placing it among the top tier of states. Key patent segments in Florida include medical and surgical devices; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and the agricultural biosciences.
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Georgia

The bioscience industry in Georgia is sizable and growing, reaching nearly 30,000 jobs across 2,047 business establishments in 2014. The state’s bioscience companies have increased employment by 6.8 percent since 2012 with four of the five industry subsectors adding jobs during this period and led by strong employment gains in research, testing, and medical labs. Georgia’s bioscience and biomedical research complex is large with nearly $967 million in bioscience academic R&D which is, in part, funded by NIH which awarded $507 million to state institutions (including non-university institutions) in 2015. Venture capital investments in Georgia bioscience companies have totaled $615 million since 2012 and have funded firms across a range of technology areas including health information technology, therapeutics, and human biotechnology.
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Hawaii

Hawaii’s bioscience industry employed 3,301 in 2014 across 201 business establishments. Two-thirds of the state’s bioscience jobs are within the research, testing, and medical labs subsector which is well concentrated with 4 percent greater employment in Hawaii relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.04). Average annual wages in the bioscience industry are just over $60,000 in Hawaii, 41 percent greater than the state’s private sector average. Hawaii’s 201 bioscience-related patents issued since 2012 primarily focused in medical and surgical devices.
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Idaho

Idaho has a diverse bioscience industry that employed 7,403 across 567 state business establishments in 2014. The state has a specialized employment concentration in three of the five major bioscience subsectors—agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; and research, testing, and medical labs. NIH funding to Idaho institutions has risen in recent years and reached $10.5 million in 2015. Since 2012, Idaho inventors have been issued 233 patents in bioscience patent classes that include medical and surgical devices; microbiology and genetics; and agricultural biosciences.
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Illinois

Illinois’ bioscience industry is large, highly concentrated, and diverse with three specialized industry subsectors. The state’s bioscience companies employed nearly 81,000 in 3,744 state business establishments in 2014. The industry in Illinois is growing, with employment up by 3.1 percent from 2012 to 2014, with gains coming from four of its five industry subsectors. Illinois has a 14 percent greater concentration of jobs in the biosciences relative to the national average. Three of its industry subsectors have a specialized employment concentration—agricultural feedstock and chemicals; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and bioscience-related distribution. Illinois has a large academic bioscience R&D base, with $1.4 billion in 2014 expenditures placing it among the top tier of states. The state also is among the leading states in NIH funding, bioscience venture capital investments, and bioscience-related patents issued since 2012.
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Indiana

Indiana’s bioscience industry is large, highly specialized, and stands out in its diversity. The state’s bioscience companies employed more than 58,000 in 2014 across 1,727 state business establishments. Indiana essentially has a specialized employment concentration in four of the five major subsectors, though the location quotient for bioscience-related distribution comes in just short of the 1.20 specialization threshold. The state is highly specialized in three subsectors—agricultural feedstock and chemicals; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and medical devices. Overall, the industry has grown by 1.4 percent since 2012 with especially large job gains in drugs and pharmaceuticals. Indiana’s research universities combine to conduct nearly $582 million in bioscience-related R&D. Indiana has been increasing its bioscience patents, which reflect the diversity of the industry with medical devices, agricultural biosciences, biochemistry, and drugs and pharmaceuticals all represented as areas of focus.
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Iowa

Iowa’s bioscience industry is sizable, specialized and diverse in its employment concentration, and has grown significantly since 2012. The state’s bioscience firms employed nearly 25,000 in 2014, up 7 percent over a 2-year period. Iowa is a national leader in the agricultural biosciences where the state accounts for 10 percent of U.S. employment, has a very high and specialized concentration relative to the national average (location quotient is 9.07), and has grown rapidly since 2012 (up 5 percent). Iowa also has a specialized employment concentration in bioscience-related distribution, which has grown by 3 percent since 2012. While employment is relatively modest, Iowa is emerging with strong recent job gains in two areas—medical devices and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Academic R&D in the biosciences is highly concentrated in Iowa both relative to all university R&D and on a per capita basis where Iowa has $159 in R&D per resident compared with $122 for the U.S. Iowa has increased its bioscience-related patent totals in recent years with the majority in agbioscience technologies.
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Kansas

Kansas’ bioscience industry is growing, and in 2014 reached more than 14,000 jobs in 836 business establishments. The state has experienced net job growth of 5.6 percent since 2012 with gains contributed by three of the five major industry subsectors, including double-digit job growth in drugs and pharmaceuticals (up 13 percent). Kansas has a specialized employment concentration in its agricultural feedstock and chemicals subsector and is nearly specialized in its employment concentration in research, testing, and medical labs. State bioscience firms have received nearly $118 million in venture capital investments since 2012, with the majority of this funding directed toward animal biotechnologies. In bioscience patents, Kansas’ 760 patents issued since 2012 have primarily been in medical and surgical devices; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and agbioscience technologies.
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Kentucky

Kentucky’s bioscience industry employment has grown by nearly 6 percent since 2012 with job gains contributed by three of its five major subsectors. By 2014, state bioscience employment totaled more than 12,000 in 1,090 state business establishments. The state’s two largest subsectors—bioscience-related distribution and research, testing, and medical labs, each had employment gains during the 2-year period to 2014, increasing by 7 percent and nearly 13 percent, respectively. Kentucky’s research universities are heavily focused in the biosciences with their nearly $383 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 76 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average. Venture capital invested in state bioscience companies totaled $78.7 million from 2012 through 2015 with investments focused in human biotechnology, health information technology, and medical diagnostics companies.
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Louisiana

Louisiana’s bioscience industry is growing, and by 2014 reached nearly 11,000 jobs that span 1,046 business establishments. Employment has grown by 4.6 percent since 2012 with job gains contributed by four of the five major industry subsectors. Louisiana has a highly specialized employment concentration in agricultural feedstock and chemicals where the state has one and a half times the average concentration for the nation. Louisiana’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their nearly $415 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 66 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the nation. The state’s 413 patents issued in the biosciences since 2012 are spread across a diverse set of technology areas including medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, the agricultural biosciences, and biochemistry.
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Maine

Maine’s growing bioscience industry employed nearly 6,400 in 205 business establishments across the state in 2014. Maine has a specialized employment concentration in drugs and pharmaceuticals that is 35 percent greater than the national average (location quotient of 1.35). The state is also highly concentrated (and nearly specialized) in research, testing, and medical labs. Industry employment growth has been led by gains in drugs and pharmaceuticals and in bioscience-related distribution which have increased by 7 percent and 4 percent, respectively, since 2012. State inventors have been issued 242 bioscience-related patents since 2012. NIH awards to Maine institutions increased to $84 million in 2015.
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Maryland

Maryland’s large and highly concentrated bioscience industry employed more than 34,000 in 2014 across just over 2,000 business establishments. Employment has edged up since 2012, increasing by nearly 1 percent with job growth contributed by three of the five industry subsectors including strong growth in medical devices. Maryland has a specialized employment concentration in two bioscience subsectors—research, testing, and medical labs and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Maryland is among the top tier of states in the size and concentration of its bioscience and biomedical research complex. The state’s research universities conducted nearly $1.7 billion in bioscience academic R&D in 2014. Likewise, Maryland institutions received nearly $1.3 billion in funding from NIH in 2015. State bioscience companies have received $1.3 billion in venture capital since 2012, again among the top tier of states, with the majority invested in human biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.
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Massachusetts

Massachusetts is home to a large, highly specialized, and growing bioscience industry with diverse strengths. The state is a national leader in the biosciences in industry size, concentration, and in the performance of its innovation ecosystem. Massachusetts’ bioscience industry employed more than 81,000 in 2014 across 2,227 business establishments. The state has a nearly two times greater concentration in bioscience jobs compared to the national average (location quotient is 1.95) and is considered to have a specialized employment concentration in three of the five major industry subsectors—research, testing, and medical labs; medical devices; and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Four of the five major industry subsectors have increased employment in recent years, contributing to Massachusetts’ 4.7 percent overall job growth since 2012. The state is among the top tier of states in the size and concentration of its bioscience and biomedical research complex with academic and other research institutions receiving more than $2.4 billion in NIH funding in 2015. Massachusetts bioscience companies have received nearly $9.5 billion in venture capital investments since 2012 and its inventors have been issued 10,777 bioscience patents over this same period. Venture capital investments in state bioscience companies have increased sharply in recent years.
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Michigan

Michigan’s bioscience industry has grown in recent years, and by 2014 employed more than 44,000 in 1,833 business establishments across the state. The sizable state industry has grown by 5.7 percent since 2012, with jobs increasing in four of the five major industry subsectors. Michigan’s drugs and pharmaceuticals sector has experienced double-digit job growth during this two-year period (up 11 percent). The state has a strong employment concentration in medical devices with a location quotient of 1.10. Michigan’s research universities conducted more than $1.2 billion in bioscience-related R&D in 2014, placing it among the top tier of all states. The state’s diverse strengths in medical device manufacturing and drugs and pharmaceuticals are evident in the focus areas of the 2,333 patents recently issued in bioscience-related technologies.
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Minnesota

Minnesota has a sizable, highly specialized, and growing bioscience industry and is a national leader in medical device manufacturing. The state’s bioscience industry employed nearly 50,000 in 2014 in 1,734 statewide business establishments. More than half of Minnesota’s bioscience industry jobs are in its specialized medical device and equipment subsector where the state is nearly four times more concentrated relative to the national average. While it is led by medical devices, the state bioscience industry is also highly concentrated in bioscience-related distribution and in agricultural feedstock and chemicals. The industry grew its employment base by 3.5 percent from 2012 to 2014. Minnesota’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their $620 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 70 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average. The state’s bioscience patenting activities place it among the top tier of states with 7,064 issued to state inventors since 2012.
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Mississippi

Mississippi’s bioscience industry is growing and reached 6,425 jobs in 2014 that span 458 business establishments. The state has a specialization in agricultural feedstock and chemicals with a 78 percent greater employment concentration relative to the national average (location quotient of 1.78). Mississippi bioscience companies have increased employment by 5.2 percent since 2012 with job gains coming from all five major industry subsectors. Average annual wages in Mississippi’s bioscience industry were nearly $61,000 in 2014, 67 percent greater than the overall average for the private sector. The state’s 358 bioscience patents issued since 2012 were largely in medical and surgical devices with additional concentrations in agricultural biosciences, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry.
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Missouri

Missouri’s nearly 27,000 bioscience industry jobs in 2014 were spread across a diverse set of industry subsectors and 1,355 business establishments. The state has a specialization in agricultural feedstock and chemicals with a location quotient of 1.61—a 61 percent greater concentration in agbioscience employment relative to the national average. While bioscience employment has declined in the state, three industry subsectors have added jobs since 2012 with more significant gains in bioscience-related distribution and in drugs and pharmaceuticals which grew by nearly 7 percent and 5 percent, respectively. The state’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their nearly $845 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 83 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average. Venture capital investments in Missouri’s bioscience companies have increased sharply since 2012, with the $347 million in venture capital invested since 2012 being well distributed across several technology segments including human biotechnology and health information technology.
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Montana

Montana’s bioscience industry is growing and in 2014 employment totaled nearly 2,800 jobs across 405 business establishments throughout the state. The state’s largest component subsector is bioscience-related distribution which accounts for half of industry employment. The bioscience industry in Montana has grown by 7.6 percent since 2012, with job gains contributed by four of the five major industry subsectors. State inventors have been issued 154 patents in bioscience-related technology areas including medical and surgical devices, biochemistry, biomedical design patents, and drugs and pharmaceuticals.
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Nebraska

Nebraska has a specialized and growing bioscience industry with employment reaching nearly 16,000 jobs in 2014 across 1,032 business establishments. The state has grown its bioscience industry employment base by 2.8 percent since 2012 with job gains coming from within the agricultural feedstock and chemicals and bioscience-related distribution subsectors. Nebraska’s bioscience jobs are 42 percent more concentrated across the state’s economy relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.42). Nebraska has a specialization in three of five major bioscience subsectors—agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; and medical devices and equipment. Nebraska’s academic bioscience R&D activity is highly concentrated, with its research universities spending nearly $298 million in 2014 which equates to a much higher than average R&D expenditure on a per capita basis. Bioscience patents totaled 493 from 2012 through 2015 and have been increasing in Nebraska during this period.
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Nevada

Nevada’s bioscience industry is growing and in 2014 industry employment reached 5,206 in 438 business establishments across the state. The majority of state employment is concentrated in two industry subsectors—research, testing, and medical labs and in bioscience-related distribution. Nevada’s more modest presence in drugs and pharmaceuticals and medical devices and equipment has grown since 2012. Average annual wages among the state’s bioscience industry workers approached $60,000 in 2014, 37 percent greater than the overall average for Nevada’s private sector. State inventors have been issued 451 bioscience-related patents since 2012 with a focus in medical and surgical devices and in drugs and pharmaceuticals.
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New Hampshire

New Hampshire’s bioscience industry is growing and by 2014 employed nearly 5,300 across 257 business establishments. The state has a specialization in medical devices and equipment with a location quotient of 1.32, meaning a 32 percent greater concentration of medical device jobs in New Hampshire relative to the national average. The industry has grown by 6.9 percent since 2012 with job gains in three of its five industry subsectors. New Hampshire’s academic bioscience R&D activity is highly concentrated with its research universities spending $185 million in 2012 which equates to a much higher than average R&D expenditure on a per capita basis. In recent years, the state has seen increases in both bioscience-related venture capital funding as well as patents.
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New Jersey

New Jersey’s bioscience industry is a national leader in its size and diverse specializations, and it is growing. State bioscience companies employed nearly 88,000 in 2014 across 2,585 business establishments. New Jersey’s economy is 89 percent more concentrated in the biosciences than the national average (location quotient is 1.89) and this high degree of specialization spans four of the five major industry subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals; research, testing, and medical labs; bioscience-related distribution; and medical devices. This distinction is shared only with one other U.S. territory, Puerto Rico, and no other states. The industry grew in New Jersey from 2012 through 2014, adding nearly 2 percent to its employment base with job gains in three of the five subsectors. The state is among the top tier in key measures of innovation and risk capital in terms of patents issued and venture capital investments in bioscience-related companies since 2012. Bioscience patent activity has increased in recent years.
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New Mexico

New Mexico is home to more than 7,700 bioscience industry jobs that spanned 625 business establishments in 2014. The state has a specialized employment concentration in its research, testing, and medical labs subsector with a 108 percent greater concentration of jobs in the New Mexican economy relative to the national average (location quotient of 2.08). Average annual wages among the state’s bioscience industry workers were more than $75,000 in 2014, 84 percent greater than the overall average for New Mexico’s private sector. Since 2012, state bioscience companies have received nearly $60 million in venture capital with investments focused in biotechnology equipment, as well as human and industrial biotechnologies.
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New York

New York’s large bioscience industry employed nearly 76,000 in 2014 while operating 3,054 business establishments across the state. While overall industry employment has been flat since 2012, two industry subsectors have added jobs—bioscience-related distribution and agricultural feedstock and chemicals. New York is among the top tier of states in measures of its bioscience innovation ecosystem. The state’s research universities conducted $3.6 billion in bioscience academic R&D in 2014. New York institutions, both academic and non-academic, received $2 billion in funding from NIH in 2015. State inventors were issued 6,520 patents from 2012 through 2015 in bioscience-related technologies. Key areas of bioscience innovation include medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry. Venture capital investments in New York bioscience companies have increased sharply in recent years and since 2012 have totaled $1.3 billion.
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North Carolina

North Carolina’s bioscience industry is large, growing, and highly specialized with a diverse set of niche strengths. The state industry employed more than 70,000 in 2014 while operating 3,179 business establishments. The concentration of employment in the bioscience industry is 46 percent greater across North Carolina’s economy relative to the national average—its location quotient is 1.46. The state has an employment specialization in three of the five major subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals; research, testing, and medical labs; and agricultural feedstock and chemicals. Statewide, the bioscience industry had 6.6 percent job growth from 2012 to 2014, with three subsectors contributing gains including especially large gains in research, testing, and medical labs. North Carolina is among the top tier across all states in key measures of bioscience R&D and innovation including in academic R&D, NIH research funding, and venture capital investments. State research universities had bioscience-related academic R&D spending exceed $2 billion in 2014.
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North Dakota

North Dakota has a growing bioscience industry with 4,159 employed in 2014 across 524 business establishments around the state. The state experienced a nearly 4 percent increase in bioscience industry employment from 2012 through 2014, driven by job gains in four of its five major industry subsectors including its largest—bioscience-related distribution. North Dakota has a specialized employment concentration in two subsectors—bioscience-related distribution and agricultural feedstock and chemicals. The state’s research universities conducted nearly $110 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2014 which translates into a highly concentrated research base relative to the state’s population—$148 in bioscience R&D per capita compared with $122 for the U.S. average.
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Ohio

Ohio has a sizable bioscience industry with employment totaling more than 48,000 in 2014 and spanning 2,696 business establishments across the state. While bioscience industry employment has been flat in Ohio since 2012, two industry subsectors have added jobs—research, testing, and medical labs and bioscience-related distribution. Ohio is among the top tier of states in key measures of bioscience R&D and innovation including in academic R&D, NIH research funding, and patenting. The state’s research universities had $1.3 billion in bioscience-related R&D expenditures in 2014. Among the 4,438 bioscience patents issued since 2012 to Ohio inventors, key technology focus areas include medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, agricultural bioscience, and biochemistry.
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Oklahoma

Oklahoma’s bioscience companies employed more than 8,300 in 2014 while operating 915 business establishments across the state. The state’s two largest component subsectors are bioscience-related distribution and research, testing, and medical labs. While Oklahoma’s bioscience industry had an overall employment decline since 2012 (down 2 percent), two of its five industry subsectors added jobs—drugs and pharmaceuticals and agricultural feedstock and chemicals. Average annual wages for Oklahoma bioscience workers exceeded $72,000 in 2014, 63 percent greater than those for the overall state private sector. Oklahoma inventors have been issued 278 patents in bioscience-related technology areas since 2012, these have been focused largely in medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry.
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Oregon

Oregon’s growing bioscience industry reached 14,000 jobs in 2014 across 845 state business establishments. State bioscience companies have increased employment by 3.5 percent since 2012, with job growth coming from four of the five industry subsectors. Oregon’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their nearly $456 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 68 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the nation. In 2015, NIH research funding to Oregon institutions totaled nearly $289 million. Venture capital investments in Oregon’s bioscience-related companies have increased in recent years and since 2012 have totaled just over $62 million.
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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has a large and highly concentrated bioscience industry with more than 77,000 jobs that spanned 2,358 individual business establishments in 2014. Its concentration of bioscience employment is 9 percent greater than the national average (location quotient is 1.09) and the state is considered to have a specialized employment base in two of the five major subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals and research, testing, and medical labs. Despite a small overall employment decline from 2012 to 2014, three of the state’s industry subsectors have increased employment. Pennsylvania is among the top tier of states in key measures of bioscience R&D and innovation including academic R&D, NIH research funding, venture capital investments, and patenting. Venture capital investments in state bioscience companies have been increasing and focused in human biotechnology, medical therapeutics, pharmaceuticals, and health information technology.
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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico has a sizable, highly specialized, and diverse bioscience industry. Its bioscience companies employed nearly 38,000 in 2014 across 1,014 business establishments. Puerto Rico has a specialized employment concentration in the biosciences with a very high location quotient of 3.91 meaning the industry is nearly four times more concentrated in the territory relative to the U.S. average. Puerto Rico has an impressive distinction it shares only with New Jersey in its employment specialization in four of the five major industry subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices; bioscience-related distribution; and research, testing, and medical labs. Average annual wages for Puerto Rico’s bioscience workers were $54,500 in 2014, more than twice the average for the overall private sector.
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Rhode Island

Rhode Island’s bioscience industry is growing and in 2014 employed more than 5,200 in 300 business establishments across the state. The state has a specialized employment concentration in two of its major industry subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals and medical devices and equipment. Rhode Island’s bioscience companies have increased their employment base by 16.5 percent since 2012, with job gains coming from all five subsectors, and particularly large growth in medical devices (up 45 percent). On a per capita basis, Rhode Island is especially concentrated in academic bioscience R&D and in NIH funding.
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South Carolina

South Carolina’s bioscience industry is growing, and in 2014 its companies employed nearly 14,000 across 1,298 business establishments. The state’s largest component subsectors include medical devices and equipment; bioscience-related distribution; and research, testing, and medical labs. Since 2012, South Carolina bioscience employment has increased by 2.1 percent with three of its five industry subsectors adding jobs. The state’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other research fields with their nearly $407 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 71 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the nation. Research funding from NIH to South Carolina institutions has increased in recent years, and by 2015 exceeded $152 million.
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South Dakota

South Dakota has a diverse and growing bioscience industry that employed nearly 5,800 in 2014 across 420 business establishments. The state has a specialized concentration of bioscience jobs in its economy relative to the national average, its location quotient is 1.20. South Dakota’s specializations span three of the five major industry subsectors—agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; and medical devices and equipment. The state’s bioscience companies have increased employment by nearly 12 percent since 2012 with four of the five subsectors contributing job gains during this 2-year period. Since 2012, South Dakota inventors have been issued 254 patents in bioscience-related classifications primarily in agbioscience technologies and in medical and surgical devices.
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Tennessee

Tennessee’s bioscience industry is sizable and specialized in its concentration with more than 40,000 jobs that spanned 1,275 business establishments in 2014. Tennessee has a specialized employment concentration in the biosciences overall with a 21 percent greater concentration of jobs in the industry relative to the national average. Within the state’s bioscience industry, two of its five subsectors are specialized in their concentrations—agricultural feedstock and chemicals and bioscience-related distribution. While overall employment has been flat since 2012, three subsectors have added jobs during this period. Tennessee’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their $750 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 69 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average.
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Texas

Texas has a large bioscience industry that reached more than 81,000 jobs in 2014 across 4,865 business establishments. Texas’ bioscience industry has grown its employment base by nearly 1 percent since 2012, with job growth in four of its five major subsectors during this period. Texas is among the top tier of states in the size of its bioscience and biomedical research and innovation base. The state’s research universities combined to conduct $3 billion in bioscience academic R&D in 2014. Funding from NIH to Texas institutions (both academic and non-academic) totaled $1 billion in 2015. Texas also is among the national leaders in the levels of venture capital invested in its bioscience companies and in bioscience-related patenting since 2012. The state’s patent totals have been increasing in recent years and primarily focused in medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, biochemistry, and microbiology and genetics.
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Utah

Utah is home to a highly specialized, diverse, and rapidly growing bioscience industry. State bioscience companies employed nearly 28,000 in 2014 while operating 1,002 business establishments. Utah has grown its bioscience industry employment base by 10.3 percent since 2012. Four of five major industry subsectors have contributed to Utah’s bioscience growth over this 2-year period (the exception is agricultural feedstock and chemicals which has a small state presence). Utah has a specialized employment concentration in three subsectors—medical devices; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and research, testing, and medical labs. Its bioscience-related distribution subsector is nearly specialized in its concentration within the state. Venture capital funding to Utah’s bioscience firms has increased sharply in recent years and over the 2012 through 2015 period totaled $331 million. The focus areas of this funding have been in health information technology, medical diagnostics, and health services.
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Vermont

Vermont’s bioscience industry is modest in size with employment totaling nearly 2,500 jobs in 2014 across 207 business establishments. Since 2012, the state industry has seen a small decline in its employment base (down 4 percent) though three of its five major subsectors had job increases. Vermont’s largest bioscience subsector, medical devices and equipment, employs about one-quarter of the industry. Vermont’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their nearly $90 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 79 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average. The state has an above-average concentration of bioscience academic R&D as well as NIH funding on a per capita basis.
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Virginia

Virginia’s bioscience industry is sizable with just over 26,000 industry jobs that spanned 1,624 business establishments in 2014. The state industry saw a 2 percent decline in bioscience industry jobs from 2012 to 2014, though it did add jobs in two of the five industry subsectors—medical devices and bioscience-related distribution. Virginia’s job gains in medical devices were especially strong at nearly 9 percent while nationally hiring was flat during this period. This is a concentrated area of innovation in the state as nearly half of state-invented patents since 2012 were in medical and surgical devices. Virginia’s research institutions received more than $322 million in NIH funding awards in 2015. The state’s bioscience companies received $713 million in venture capital investments from 2012 through 2015.
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Washington

Washington’s sizable bioscience industry employed more than 29,000 in 2014 while operating 1,421 business establishments across the state. The state industry has seen a modest decline in jobs since 2012, down by 1.9 percent. The state is highly concentrated and nearly specialized in the research, testing, and medical labs industry subsector with a location quotient of 1.19. Washington is among the top tier of states in NIH funding awarded in 2015 with $885 million, which translates into a well above-average concentration across the state on a per capita basis. After a decline in 2013, NIH research funding to state institutions has been increasing in recent years. Washington’s bioscience companies have received $1.5 billion in venture capital investments since 2012, also among the leading states in this key measure of access to risk capital. The majority of these investments have been made in companies working in human biotechnologies.
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West Virginia

West Virginia’s bioscience industry employed more than 6,400 in 2014 across 419 business establishments. The state industry has seen a slight increase in its employment base by 0.6 percent since 2012. Employment in drugs and pharmaceuticals in West Virginia is considered to be specialized and is 93 percent more concentrated in the state economy relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.93). Annual wages for state bioscience workers exceed $71,000, on average, and are 76 percent more than the overall private sector average. State patenting in the biosciences totaled 184 patents issued from 2012 through 2015 with a focus in medical and surgical devices, biochemistry, and drugs and pharmaceuticals. While modest in number, the state’s patent totals have increased in recent years.
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Wisconsin

Wisconsin’s bioscience industry is sizable and in 2014 totaled nearly 32,000 jobs that spanned 1,264 business establishments across the state. Industry employment has been flat since 2012 though two industry subsectors have increased jobs during this period—research, testing, and medical labs and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Wisconsin has a specialized employment concentration in medical device manufacturing with a 40 percent greater concentration in Wisconsin relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.40). The state is also highly concentrated in bioscience-related distribution. Wisconsin’s research universities are especially focused in the biosciences relative to other fields with their $887 million in bioscience academic R&D in 2014 accounting for 70 percent of all academic research compared with 61 percent for the national average. State inventors have been issued 3,014 bioscience-related patents since 2012 with a focus in medical and surgical devices, agricultural biosciences, and several other areas.
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Wyoming

Wyoming’s bioscience industry employed 945 in 2014 while operating 130 business establishments across the state. The state industry has increased employment by 7 percent since 2012. The largest bioscience subsector is agricultural feedstock and chemicals, which also has a specialized employment concentration in Wyoming with a location quotient of 2.23 or 123 percent greater concentration in the state economy relative to the national average. Average wages for bioscience workers in Wyoming were nearly $96,000 per year, more than twice the average across the state’s private sector. Research funding from NIH to Wyoming institutions increased in 2015 and totaled $10.5 million.
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