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The Value of Bioscience Innovation in Growing Jobs and Improving Quality of Life 2018

This eighth, biennial report focuses on the economic progress and footprint of the industry geographically including the performance, positioning and latest trends in the bioscience industry for the nation, states and metropolitan areas. For the first time, it includes a national assessment of the full economic impact of the bioscience industry not only in terms of employment, but also with respect to economic output and fiscal impacts. In addition, the report details the nation’s academic research activities and trends in federal funding, access to critical angel and venture capital and the innovation outputs context via patent activities.

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Alabama

Alabama’s bioscience industry employed 13,100 in 2016 across just over 1,000 individual state business establishments. The state’s bioscience firms have increased employment by 2.3 percent since 2014 with jobs gains from three of the five major industry subsectors. Alabama has a specialized employment concentration in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences (location quotient is 1.58). State universities spent $631 million on R&D activities in biosciences fields, equivalent to 69 percent of all academic R&D, a concentration that is well above the national average. NIH awards to Alabama institutions have been on a steady rise, reaching $298 million in FY 2017.
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Alaska

Alaska’s bioscience industry is modest in size, at 1,005 jobs and 118 individual business establishments.  The largest employing subsectors in the state are research, testing and medical laboratories at 578 jobs and bioscience-related distribution at 324 jobs.  While overall Alaska’s bioscience industry did not grow from 2014 through 2016, its medical device and equipment subsector added jobs. Bioscience jobs pay well above the average private sector wage with bioscience workers earning $63,222, on average, compared with $52,364 for the private sector. NIH funding to state institutions has steadily grown in recent years, reaching $16.8 million in FY 2017.
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Arizona

Arizona has a sizable and rapidly growing bioscience industry. State bioscience firms employed 25,686 in 2016 in 1,310 individual business establishments. Industry employment has grown by 9 percent since 2014, twice the growth rate of the nation, with four of the five major subsectors adding jobs during the period. Both drugs and pharmaceuticals and research, testing and medical labs have experienced double-digit job growth since 2014. Arizona inventors have been awarded nearly 2,000 bioscience-related patents since 2014, among the second quintile of states in patent activity. Since 2015, NIH awards to Arizona institutions have increased, reaching $189 million in FY 2017.
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Arkansas

Arkansas’ bioscience industry is growing at a strong rate, increasing its employment base by 12 percent since 2014 to reach 6,965 jobs in 2016. State firms operate 639 business establishments, a figure which has also grown since 2014 (up 6.5 percent). Arkansas has a specialized concentration of jobs in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences with a location quotient of 1.43; the subsector grew its employment base by nearly 10 percent from 2014 through 2016. The state’s universities have a strong R&D focus in bioscience-related fields, with 81 percent of academic research expenditures in these areas. State inventors are associated with 326 patents awarded from 2014 through 2017, with the majority in medical and surgical devices and in novel plant variants. 
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California

California’s large and leading, specialized bioscience industry continues to grow. Since 2014, state bioscience firms have increase employment by 7 percent, outpacing national growth and reaching nearly 268,000 industry jobs by 2016. All five major subsectors added jobs during this period. California is 31 percent more concentrated in bioscience industry employment compared with the national average (location quotient is 1.31) and its industry strengths are diverse, with specialized employment concentrations in three of the five major subsectors—medical devices; research, testing and medical labs; and drugs and pharmaceuticals. In addition to industry strengths, California is among the top tier of states in several measures of the industry’s innovation ecosystem including academic R&D expenditures, NIH funding, venture capital investments, and patent awards.
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Colorado

Colorado’s bioscience industry is sizable and growing. The industry employed just under 30,000 in 2016 across 2,352 business establishments. All five of its major industry subsectors have increased employment since 2014, with an overall bioscience industry growth rate of 5.3 percent. Colorado has a specialized employment concentration in two subsectors—medical devices and equipment and bioscience-related distribution, both of which employ about 10,000 in the state. The state is among the top tier in venture capital funding for bioscience companies, with nearly $1.2 billion invested since 2014. NIH funding to Colorado institutions has been increasing and reached $359 million in FY 2017.
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Connecticut

Connecticut has a sizable and well concentrated bioscience industry, with more than 22,000 employed across 988 individual business establishments in 2016. The industry’s employment base is 7 percent more concentrated than the national average (location quotient is 1.07). Connecticut has a specialized concentration in medical device manufacturing and has an above-average concentration in research, testing and medical labs. Bioscience industry employment has declined since 2014, down 7.5 percent. Connecticut’s universities spent nearly $917 billion in bioscience-related R&D activities in 2016—a highly concentrated focus in the biosciences at 80 percent of all R&D. The state has a high concentration of NIH funding with $146 per capita compared with just $80 per capita for the nation.
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Delaware

Delaware’s bioscience industry employed nearly 8,000 in 2016 and is 45 percent more specialized in its employment concentration compared with the nation (location quotient is 1.45). The state industry’s physical footprint includes 495 business establishments. Delaware has a specialized concentration in two major subsectors—research, testing and medical labs and medical device manufacturing. While industry employment has declined in Delaware since 2014, both medical devices and agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences have added jobs. State bioscience companies have received nearly $61 million in venture capital investments since 2014.
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District of Columbia

Washington, DC bioscience firms employed nearly 3,000 in 2016 while operating 216 individual business establishments. Nearly all of its employment, and most of its establishments are in the research, testing and medical labs subsector, where it has a nearly specialized employment concentration 18 percent above the national average (location quotient is 1.18). The District’s universities performed nearly $313 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2016, a very high concentration relative to the local population but reflecting the activity of its two research universities.
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Florida

Florida’s bioscience industry is large and growing. State firms have increased employment by 4.3 percent since 2014 to reach just over 87,000 jobs in 2016. These firms operate 6,198 business establishments, a physical footprint that has grown by nearly 4 percent since 2014. The industry has multiple strengths with a specialized employment concentration in bioscience-related distribution 28 percent above the national average (location quotient is 1.28) and with a strong concentration in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences (location quotient is 1.12). Florida’s universities spent $1.3 billion on bioscience-related R&D in 2016. State inventors are associated with 5,100 patents awarded from 2014 through 2017 in bioscience-related technology classes, a volume that places Florida in the top tier of states in patent activity.
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Georgia

Georgia is home to a large bioscience industry that has grown at a rapid pace in recent years. The state’s bioscience firms have grown their employment base by 10.6 percent since 2014 and employed just over 32,000 in 2016. Companies have also expanded their establishment count by 16 percent during this same period and now operate 2,431 across the state. Four of the five major industry subsectors have increased employment during the 2-year period. Georgia’s research universities conducted nearly $1.1 billion in bioscience-related academic R&D in 2016; funded, in part, by a growing base of NIH awards that reached $537 million in FY 2017.
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Hawaii

Hawaii has a modest industry presence in the biosciences, with its firms operating 208 business establishments that employed 3,161 in 2016. The majority of jobs are in the research, testing and medical labs subsector which employs two of three Hawaiian bioscience workers. That subsector experienced a small employment gain from 2014 through 2016, though overall the bioscience industry had an employment decline of 2.6 percent. Hawaiian inventors have been awarded 193 patents in bioscience-related technology classes since 2014, with the majority in medical and surgical devices.
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Idaho

Idaho’s bioscience industry employed 4,734 in 2016 after a modest employment gain of 1.4 percent since 2014. The recent employment gains have come from three of the five major subsectors. State firms operate 606 bioscience establishments, a physical footprint that has increased by 14 percent since 2014. Idaho has a highly specialized employment concentration in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences with a location quotient of 2.75.  Idaho institutions have increased their NIH funding awards from 2014-15 when they received about $10.5 million each year to 2016-17 when they have been awarded $14.1 million annually.
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Illinois

Illinois’ bioscience industry is large, highly concentrated, and growing. The state’s more than 85,000 jobs place it among the top tier of bioscience states in terms of employment. Illinois’ firms have increased employment by 3.8 percent since 2014, slightly below the national growth rate for the industry. Each of the five subsectors added jobs during this period. Bioscience firms operate 3,778 business establishments across the state with diverse niche employment specializations in three of the five subsectors—agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and bioscience-related distribution. State research universities spent $1.4 billion on bioscience-related R&D in 2016. Illinois companies received nearly $1.6 billion in venture capital investments from 2014 through 2017.
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Indiana

Indiana is home to a large and highly specialized bioscience industry that is 55 percent more concentrated in the state relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.55). Bioscience firms employed just over 58,000 in 2016 in 1,730 business establishments across the state. Indiana’s industry strengths are diverse, with three of the five major subsectors having strong specializations in their employment concentration, including: drugs and pharmaceuticals; agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences; and medical device manufacturing. The state’s research universities spent $621 million in bioscience-related R&D activities in 2016 funded, in part, by recent growth in NIH funding awards which reached nearly $261 million in FY 2017. Indiana has a large volume of patents, with Hoosier inventors associated with 4,148 awarded from 2014 through 2017 in bioscience-related technology classes.
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Iowa

Iowa’s bioscience industry is sizable and specialized, with 31 percent more bioscience jobs than the national average (location quotient is 1.31). In 2016, state firms employed 24,540 in 1,282 business establishments across the state. Iowa is a national leader in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences subsector, with an extremely high employment specialization. The state is also specialized in its concentration of jobs in bioscience-related distribution. Iowa’s bioscience industry had a modest employment decline from 2014 through 2016 (down 1.3 percent); although three of its five major subsectors increased employment during this period. The state’s research universities conducted more than $512 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2016 which translates into a very high concentration on a per capita basis. NIH funding contributes to academic R&D expenditures, and these awards have been on the rise in Iowa, reaching $177 million in FY 2017.
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Kansas

Kansas’ bioscience industry is growing, and its firms employed nearly 15,000 in 2016 in 884 individual business establishments across the state. Since 2014, the state industry has increased its employment base by 6 percent with four of its five major industry subsectors gaining jobs during the period. Kansas has two specialized industry subsectors based on their employment concentration—agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences and research, testing and medical labs. In recent years, Kansas institutions have seen an increase in their receipt of NIH funding awards which have grown from $85.7 million in 2015 to $100.6 million in 2017.
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Kentucky

Kentucky’s bioscience industry is growing, reaching just over 14,000 jobs in 2016 following strong employment growth since 2014. State firms have increased employment by 8.6 percent during this 2-year period, almost twice the national growth rate. All five of Kentucky’s major industry subsectors contributed to the job gains. State bioscience companies operate 1,212 individual business establishments across the state. Kentucky has a specialized employment concentration in bioscience-related distribution, which employs just over half in the state industry. The state’s research universities spent $418 million in bioscience-related academic R&D in 2016, which represents 78 percent of all university R&D, a very high concentration relative to most other states.
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Louisiana

Louisiana grew its bioscience industry employment by 3 percent in the recent 2-year period and by 2016 employed 11,512 across 1,154 state establishments. Three of the industry’s five major subsectors contributed to the recent job gains. Louisiana has a specialized employment concentration in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences (location quotient is 2.88). The state has increased its funding from NIH from 2014-15 with nearly $142 million in awards in 2016-17. This funding helps to support, in part, the state’s academic R&D activities in bioscience-related fields, which totaled $415 million in 2016 across Louisiana’s research universities.
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Maine

Maine’s bioscience industry reached 6,630 jobs in 2016 following 3.3 percent growth since 2014. State industry employers have expanded their employment and establishment base, the latter by 15.2 percent since 2014 to operate 255 total bioscience establishments in 2016. Maine’s employment growth has come largely from its drugs and pharmaceuticals subsector which grew by 16 percent from 2014 through 2016. This subsector is also considered to have a specialized employment concentration, with a location quotient of 1.57. Maine is also well concentrated in its research, testing and medical labs employment. State institutions have seen an increase in NIH funding in FY 2017, with a total of $89.4 million awarded.
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Maryland

Maryland’s bioscience industry is large, well concentrated, and growing. From 2014 through 2016 the state’s bioscience companies increased their employment base by 5.5 percent, outpacing national job growth and reaching more than 36,000 jobs that span 2,281 state establishments. The industry in Maryland is 17 percent more concentrated compared with the national average (location quotient is 1.17). Within the industry, the state has specialized employment concentrations in two subsectors—research, testing and medical labs and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Four of its industry subsectors contributed to the overall job gains since 2014. Maryland is among the top tier of states in two key areas of the industry’s innovation ecosystem—bioscience-related academic R&D and NIH funding awards. In NIH funding, the state has seen a steady increase in these awards in recent years, reaching $1.6 billion in FY 2017.
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Massachusetts

Massachusetts is among the national leaders in the bioscience industry with a large, highly specialized, diverse, and rapidly growing state sector. Bioscience firms in Massachusetts have grown their employment base by 8.9 percent since 2014 or twice the national growth rate. By 2016, the industry employed nearly 94,000 across 2,567 state establishments. All five industry subsectors contributed to the overall job gains. The bioscience industry is 113 percent more concentrated in Massachusetts compared with the national average (location quotient is 2.13). The state has a specialized employment concentration in three of the five subsectors, including: research, testing and medical labs; medical devices and equipment; and drugs and pharmaceuticals. Massachusetts is among the top tier of states in every key measure of its innovation ecosystem, and it is growing in important areas including in NIH funding awards, which reached $2.7 billion in FY 2017 and in venture capital investments which grew to reach $5.2 billion in 2017.
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Michigan

Michigan’s sizable bioscience industry had a slight employment increase from 2014 to 2016 to reach more than 40,000 jobs that span 1,772 individual business establishments across the state. Three of the state’s five industry subsectors contributed to the overall job gain. Michigan is 7 percent more concentrated in its employment in medical device and equipment manufacturing compared with the national average (location quotient is 1.07). The state is among the top tier in academic bioscience-related R&D activities, with more than $1.3 billion in expenditures in 2016. This university research is supported, in part, by federal funding including from NIH where awards to Michigan institutions have been steadily rising in recent years and reached $707.7 million in FY 2017.
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Minnesota

Minnesota is home to a large, specialized, and growing bioscience industry. State employers have increased employment by 4.3 percent since 2014 to reach 54,414 industry jobs that span 1,780 business establishments across the state. Job gains have come from throughout the industry with all five major subsectors contributing to the overall growth. The state has a 55 percent greater concentration of bioscience employment relative to the national average—its location quotient is 1.55. Among the subsectors, Minnesota has a specialized concentration in three—medical devices and equipment; agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences; and bioscience-related distribution. The state’s bioscience companies have received $1.1 billion in venture capital investments since 2014 which is among the top tier of states in volume. The state continues to be a leader in the medical device subsector, so it is not surprising that the focus in both venture funding and patent awards is in this area.
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Mississippi

Mississippi’s bioscience industry employed 6,227 in 2016 in 533 individual business establishments across the state. The state has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences industry subsector where its location quotient measures 1.48. Despite a slight decline in overall industry employment from 2014 through 2016, three of Mississippi’s industry subsectors had overall job gains, including its largest—bioscience-related distribution. State institutions have seen an increase in NIH funding awards for biomedical research, which reached more than $53 million in 2016 and 2017. Bioscience-related patent activity has also risen among state inventors.
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Missouri

Missouri’s sizable bioscience industry is growing, outpacing national job growth from 2014 through 2016 to reach just over 29,000 jobs. The 5.4 percent job growth over the 2-year period included increases from each of the state’s five major bioscience subsectors. Missouri has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences subsector, where it is 86 percent more concentrated than the national average (location quotient is 1.86). The state’s research universities conducted $920 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2016. Missouri has a particularly strong focus on biosciences research across its universities, accounting for 85 percent of all academic R&D. Funding for academic research is being bolstered by increases in federal NIH awards to Missouri institutions, which reached $537.5 million in FY 2017.
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Montana

Montana’s bioscience industry is modest in size but has grown in recent years. State bioscience firms have increased their employment base by 4.1 percent since 2014 to reach 2,782 industry jobs in 2016 in 378 state establishments. Montana’s largest industry subsector is bioscience-related distribution with more than 1,100 jobs. Inventors in Montana are associated with 126 patents awarded since 2014 in bioscience-related technology classes, with the innovation focus areas primarily in medical and surgical devices, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry.
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Nebraska

Nebraska is home to a specialized and growing bioscience industry with diverse strengths. Industry employment totaled nearly 17,000 in 2016 across 1,164 business establishments around the state. Bioscience employment is 45 percent more concentrated in Nebraska compared with the national average—its location quotient is 1.45. Within the industry, the state is specialized in its concentrations of three industry subsectors—agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences; bioscience-related distribution; and medical device manufacturing. The biosciences grew by 2.7 percent from 2014 through 2016 with job gains in four of the five subsectors. The state’s research universities conducted nearly $336 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2016. Nebraska has a particularly strong focus in biosciences research across its universities, accounting for 75 percent of all academic R&D.
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Nevada

Nevada’s bioscience industry, while modest in size, has grown at a strong rate in recent years and outpaced national job growth. From 2014 through 2016, the industry grew by 7.6 percent to reach 6,705 jobs that span 579 business establishments across the state. Job gains occurred throughout the industry with four of Nevada’s five major subsectors contributing to the overall growth. State institutions have increased their receipt of NIH funding awards from about $25 million annually in 2014-15 to more than $31 million in both 2016 and 2017.
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New Hampshire

New Hampshire’s bioscience industry, while modest in size, has grown at a strong rate in recent years and well outpaced national job growth. From 2014 through 2016, the industry grew by 11.1 percent to reach 5,498 jobs that span 307 business establishments across the state. Job gains occurred throughout the industry with four of New Hampshire’s five major subsectors contributing to the overall growth. The state has a specialized employment concentration in the medical device and equipment subsector, which is 42 percent more concentrated relative to the national average (location quotient is 1.42). New Hampshire has a strong concentration of NIH funding relative to its size, with nearly $109 million in NIH awards in FY 2017 equivalent to $81 per capita, just above the national average.
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New Jersey

New Jersey is among the national leaders in the biosciences with a very large, highly specialized and diverse industry base that has seen moderate growth in recent years. Industry firms grew their employment base by 2.6 percent from 2014 through 2016 to reach nearly 94,000 jobs that span 2,897 state business establishments. Growth in four of the industry’s five major subsectors helped to more than offset a decline in the state’s large drugs and pharmaceuticals subsector. New Jersey has a high degree of industry specialization with 94 percent greater concentration of bioscience industry employment relative to the nation (location quotient is 1.94). Further, the state stands out in its breadth of industry strengths with a specialized employment concentration in four of the five industry subsectors, a distinction that is shared only with Puerto Rico. The high concentration of industry is evident in the innovation activities of state inventors, who have been awarded 7,303 patents during the 2014 through 2017 period in bioscience-related technology classes. Venture capital investments have risen in recent years, reaching $320 million in 2017.
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New Mexico

New Mexico’s bioscience industry has grown by 3.6 percent since 2014 and in 2016 state firms employed more than 7,200 while operating 248 business establishments across the state. The recent industry employment growth was driven by job gains in medical device manufacturing and in drugs and pharmaceuticals. The state’s largest industry subsector, research, testing and medical labs has a specialized employment concentration (location quotient is 1.64). NIH funding to New Mexican research institutions has risen to $100 million in FY 2017. Venture capital investments in bioscience-related companies has also been rising.
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New York

New York’s large bioscience industry has seen moderate employment growth in recent years, with state firms increasing their employment base by 1.4 percent from 2014 to 2016. In 2016, the industry employed nearly 79,000 in 3,514 business establishments across the state. Job growth was driven by three of the five industry subsectors, with research, testing and medical labs the fastest growing among them. New York is a national leader in the size and breadth of its innovation ecosystem for the biosciences. The state is among the top tier in key measures, all of which have been increasing in recent years, including in academic R&D where its research universities spent nearly $4.1 billion in bioscience-related fields in 2016; in NIH funding awards, which have risen to nearly $2.4 billion in FY 2017; in venture capital investments; and in patent activities.
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North Carolina

North Carolina’s bioscience industry is large, growing, and highly specialized in its overall employment concentration.  In 2016, state bioscience firms employed more than 75,000 in 3,843 individual business establishments.  Industry employment has grown by 2.5 percent since 2014 with two of the five industry subsectors contributing strong job growth.  North Carolina has diverse strengths in the biosciences, with specialized employment concentrations in two major subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals and research, testing and medical labs; as well as above-average concentrations in two others—agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences and bioscience-related distribution.  North Carolina has a breadth of strengths across its innovation ecosystem—it is in the top tier of states in measures of industry size and concentration, university R&D in the biosciences, NIH funding, and venture capital investments.  In bioscience-related patents, state inventors have been associated with 3,258 since 2014, which places the state in the second quintile among all states.
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North Dakota

North Dakota’s bioscience industry is modest in size but has grown in recent years. State bioscience firms have increased their employment base by 2.4 percent since 2014 to reach 3,768 industry jobs in 2016 in 506 state establishments. North Dakota has a specialized employment concentration in two of the industry’s major subsectors—agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences and bioscience-related distribution. The state has a strong concentration relative to its size in bioscience-related academic R&D where the nearly $118 million in research expenditures in 2016 translate to an R&D per capita figure well above the national average.
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Ohio

Ohio has a sizable bioscience industry base that has seen moderate growth in recent years. State firms have increased employment by 1.6 percent from 2014 through 2016 to reach more than 48,000 jobs across 2,918 business establishments across the state.  Job gains were contributed by three of the five industry subsectors. Ohio has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences subsector as well as an above-average concentration in bioscience-related distribution, both of which have increased employment in the 2-year period. Ohio is among the top tier of states in key innovation-driving facets of the biosciences including in academic R&D expenditures ($1.3 billion in 2016); NIH funding (rising to $754 million in FY 2017); and in bioscience-related patent awards (4,553 from 2014-17).
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Oklahoma

Oklahoma’s bioscience industry has grown at a rapid pace in recent years, with state firms increasing their employment base by 13.4 percent to 9,698 jobs from 2014 through 2016. This growth rate far outpaces that for the nation (4.4 percent) during this period. Job growth occurred throughout the industry with all five subsectors contributing job gains. Industry firms operate 894 business establishments across the state. Oklahoma has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences subsector (location quotient is 1.43). NIH funding awards to state research institutions have risen in recent years, reaching $92 million in FY 2017.
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Oregon

Oregon’s bioscience companies are growing the industry, increasing employment by 3.3 percent from 2014 through 2016 to reach 13,400 state jobs that span 938 business establishments. Four of the industry’s five major subsectors contributed to the overall employment increase. The state’s research universities conducted $493 million in bioscience-related R&D in 2016. Oregon has a particularly strong focus in biosciences research across its universities, accounting for 70 percent of all academic R&D. Funding for university research has been bolstered by an increase in NIH awards from 2016 to 2017 when state institutions were awarded $312 million.
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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania’s bioscience industry is very large, highly concentrated and growing. From 2014 through 2016, industry firms grew their employment base by 6.1 percent to just over 81,000 state jobs within 2,517 business establishments. This growth rate outpaced that for the nation during this period (4.4 percent). Four of the state’s five industry subsectors contributed to the overall industry job growth. Pennsylvania is 11 percent more concentrated in bioscience employment compared to the national average (location quotient is 1.11). The state has a specialized concentration in two subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals and research, testing and medical labs; as well as an above-average concentration in medical device manufacturing. Pennsylvania is among the top tier of states in key measures of the biosciences innovation ecosystem including in academic R&D expenditures; NIH funding to its institutions; venture capital investments; and in patents awarded to state inventors.
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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico has a sizable bioscience industry with a diverse set of industry strengths. In 2016, bioscience firms in the Commonwealth employed nearly 38,000 within 983 individual business establishments. While industry growth has been flat, two of the industry subsectors have added jobs since 2014—drugs and pharmaceuticals and medical device manufacturing. Puerto Rico is highly specialized in its employment concentration in the biosciences—its location quotient is 3.90. In addition, it has the distinction, along with New Jersey, of having a specialized employment concentration in four of the five major bioscience subsectors, representing the importance of the industry to the Commonwealth’s economy and the diversity of industry niches. Despite its industry strength and size, Puerto Rico lags most states in key measures of the innovation ecosystem.
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Rhode Island

Rhode Island has a modest presence in the biosciences, with industry firms employing 4,736 in 2016 across 356 state establishments. The industry has a specialized employment concentration in drugs and pharmaceuticals, with 34 percent more concentration compared with the national average (location quotient is 1.34); and an above-average concentration of jobs in medical devices and equipment. The industry has shed jobs since 2014, with employment down nearly 10 percent statewide. Rhode Island has a strong concentration in NIH awards to its research institutions with per capita funding at twice the national average. Its receipt of NIH funding has risen in recent years and totaled $170.6 million in FY 2017.
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South Carolina

South Carolina’s bioscience industry employed 13,967 in 2016 across more than 1,500 state business establishments. The state’s bioscience employment base has increased by 4.3 percent since 2014, matching the national growth rate. Job gains were contributed by two industry subsectors—bioscience-related distribution and drugs and pharmaceuticals. South Carolina firms have increased their base of bioscience establishments by 14 percent over the same 2-year period. NIH awards to South Carolina institutions have risen from $147 million in 2014 to nearly $184 million in 2017. State universities spent $439 million on R&D activities in bioscience fields which comprises 73 percent of all academic R&D in science and engineering fields. The concentration of bioscience academic R&D expenditures is far higher than the national average and the majority of states.
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South Dakota

South Dakota’s bioscience industry is growing and has a specialized concentration of employment relative to the national average.  In 2016, the state’s bioscience industry employed 6,061 in 504 business establishments.  South Dakota bioscience firms have increased their employment base by 2.4 percent since 2014 with three of the five major industry subsectors gaining jobs during this period.  The state has industrial strengths in several subsectors, with specialized employment concentrations in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences; bioscience-related distribution; and in medical device and equipment manufacturing.  South Dakota has seen recent increases in NIH funding awards—in FY 2017, state institutions were awarded $23.5 million, up from $20.6 million in FY 2015.
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Tennessee

Tennessee’s bioscience firms have grown their employment base by 2.4 percent since 2014 and employed nearly 34,000 in 2016. Companies have also expanded their establishment count by nearly 26 percent during this same period and now operate 1,547 across the state. Three of the five major industry subsectors in the state have increased employment during the 2-year period. Tennessee has a specialized employment concentration in bioscience-related distribution, 43 percent more concentrated than the national average (location quotient is 1.43). In addition, Tennessee has a well above-average concentration in medical device manufacturing. Tennessee’s research universities conducted more than $705 million in bioscience-related academic R&D in 2016; funded, in part, by a growing base of NIH awards that reached $511 million in FY 2017.
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Texas

Texas’ large bioscience industry is growing and in 2016 employed nearly 90,000 across more than 5,500 business establishments. With employment growth of 8.6 percent and establishment growth of 10.7 percent since 2014, Texas has outpaced national growth for the bioscience industry overall, as well as in three of the five major subsectors. More than 40 percent of Texas’ bioscience employment is within the bioscience-related distribution subsector. Texas is among the top tier of states in several key measures of the industry’s innovation ecosystem including in academic R&D expenditures at nearly $3.3 billion in 2016; NIH funding at nearly $1.2 billion in FY 2017; in venture capital investments at nearly $1.6 billion from 2014-17; and in patent awards where 4,704 were awarded to state inventors since 2014.
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Utah

Utah’s bioscience industry is sizable, highly specialized, diverse in its strengths and growing rapidly in recent years. The state’s industry employment is one of the most highly concentrated in the nation, with a location quotient of 1.84. Bioscience firms operate 1,139 business establishments in the state that employ nearly 31,000. The state has seen employment growth of 12.1 percent since 2014, nearly three times the national average (4.4 percent). Four of the five major subsectors have contributed to industry employment growth since 2014 and three are highly specialized in their concentration—medical devices and equipment; drugs and pharmaceuticals; and research, testing and medical labs. In addition to a strong industrial presence, Utah has seen growth in bioscience-related venture capital, reaching nearly $195 million in investments in 2017.
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Vermont

Vermont’s bioscience firms employed 2,622 across 204 business establishments in 2016. Bioscience employment in Vermont grew by nearly 10 percent since 2014, more than double the national average. Employment growth occurred in four of the state’s five major subsectors. Vermont is specialized in its concentration of employment in the medical devices and equipment subsector, with one-third of all bioscience jobs in the sector and a location quotient of 1.29. Vermont’s $98 million in bioscience academic R&D accounts for 82 percent of all science and engineering R&D, which is a higher concentration than nearly every other state.
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Virginia

The bioscience industry in Virginia employed more than 24,000 across nearly 1,900 business establishments in 2016. The research, testing and medical laboratories subsector accounts for 50 percent of all bioscience jobs in the state. Since 2014, small employment gains in the industry were driven by the medical device and equipment subsector, which grew four times faster in Virginia than the national average. State employers have grown the number of bioscience business establishments at a rate more than twice as fast as the nation between 2014 and 2016. Virginia’s research universities spent nearly $737 million in bioscience-related R&D activities in 2016. Bolstering this academic R&D, NIH funding in the state has grown by more than one-third in recent years, from $280 million in 2014 to $377 million in 2017.
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Washington

Washington’s bioscience industry is sizable and growing, with more than 33,000 industry jobs spanning 1,744 business establishments across the state in 2016. Growth in both establishments and employment outpaced the national average from 2014 through 2016, with statewide employment increasing by 5.5 percent. Industry job growth was fueled by gains in all five of the major subsectors. Washington’s largest subsector, research, testing and medical laboratories, also has a specialized employment concentration with a location quotient of 1.26. In addition to a sizable industry presence, Washington is also a strong performer in several components of the innovation ecosystem. The state is among the top tier of states in NIH funding and in venture capital investments to bioscience companies, with nearly $2 billion in VC investments made from 2014 through 2017.
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West Virginia

West Virginia’s bioscience industry is growing rapidly and has multiple industry specializations. State bioscience firms grew their employment base by 14 percent from 2014 through 2016, well outpacing national growth (4.4 percent) to reach nearly 8,000 total industry jobs.  Job gains were contributed by three of the state’s five major industry subsectors. West Virginia is specialized in two of the five major subsectors, with a location quotient of 2.05 in agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences, and a location quotient of 1.93 in drugs and pharmaceuticals, the state’s largest subsector. NIH funding to West Virginia research institutions has grown from $19 million in 2014 to more than $28 million in 2017.
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Wisconsin

The bioscience industry in Wisconsin is sizable and growing, with state firms employing nearly 35,000 across 1,382 business establishments in 2016. Growth in both state establishments and employment have outpaced the national average since 2014. The state experienced job gains in each of its five major industry subsectors. Wisconsin has a specialized employment concentration in the medical device and equipment subsector and above-average concentrations in both bioscience-related distribution and agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences. State research institutions have seen an increase in recent years in NIH funding awards which totaled $424.9 million in 2017. These federal funds represent a key funding source for the state’s $914 million in academic biosciences R&D expenditures.
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Wyoming

Wyoming’s bioscience industry employed more than 900 across 156 business establishments in 2016. The state has a specialized employment concentration in the agricultural feedstock and industrial biosciences subsector with a location quotient of 2.41. NIH funding awarded to Wyoming institutions has grown from $7.5 million in 2014 to $12.4 million in 2017.
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